JUTE NATURAL FIBER
Jute natural fiber is one
of the most affordable natural fibers and is second only to cotton in
yearly production and it's variety of uses.
natural fiber is extracted from several similar varieties of the jute
plant. These are known by different names, depending on the region where
they are cultivated. Jute, itself, is known in Hindi as 'pat' and 'allyott.' In its finished form, jute is also known as 'burlap' or 'hessian.'
Jute plants are classified as belonging to the hibiscus or mallow family (malvaceae), although the white jute variety is also sometimes classified in the lime tree family (tiliaceae).
TYPES OF JUTE NATURAL FIBER
The majority of Jute natural fiber is extracted from the long stems of the white jute plant known as Corchorus capsularis. White raw jute is also known as 'bangla white jute.' It is primarily used for yarn, twine and rope.
Some jute natural fiber is also taken from another variety of the jute plant, the Corchorus olitorius. This plant is also known as jute mallow, nalta jute, Jew's mallow, bush okra, krinkrin, molokhia, and West African sorrel.
fiber from this plant is silkier and much stronger than white raw jute.
Because of its extra strength, it is typically used to make bags such
as gunny sacks as well as clothing.
KENAF or MESTA JUTE
Another variety of jute is called kenaf. It is also known as mesta in South Asian countries.
(In the US and Europe, they are both called jute because of their very
similar uses or separated into jute and kenaf.) Kenaf is from a
different plant than white or tossa jute known as the Hibiscus cannabinus.
There is also a third jute plant called roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa, which is related to the other varieties of jute and has similar uses.
EXPORTERS and IMPORTERS
of all the jute in the world is grown in South Asia in India and
Bangladesh. India produces the largest of amount of jute and also some
exports a large amount of jute products and the rest is used in India
domestically. Bangladesh exports jute as raw fiber as well as
manufactured items. China produces mostly kenaf and Thailand produces
both kenaf and roselle.
The history of raw jute goes all the way back to the 17th
century when the British East India Company first began trading in raw
Jute. India's jute-processing industry began in 1855 with Calcutta as
the major center.
India's partition in 1947 left much of the jute-producing land in East Pakistan, now the independent country of Bangladesh.
The largest exporters
of jute are India, then Bangladesh, followed by China, Uzbekistan,
Nepal, Vietnam, Myanmar (formerly Burma), Zimbabwe, Thailand, and Egypt.
The largest importers of raw jute fiber are Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and France.
THE JUTE CROP
is an annual crop that is planted two times a year, April or May and
July or August, taking approximately 120 days to grow. Little fertilizer
or pesticides are needed.
typically grows best in well-drained, sandy loam and needs an average
monthly rainfall of at least 3 to 4 inches during the growing season with a humidity of 60% to 90%. The plants grow to an average of 10 to
12 feet with finger-sized cylindrical stalks. Jute plants are cultivated
close together so the plants grow tall and straight.
plant bears small yellow flowers. The leaves are a light green and are 4
to 6 inches long, about 2 inches wide, and have serrated edges that
taper to a point.
harvesting of jute is begun when the flowers have been shed but before
the seedpods are fully mature. If cut before the flowers shed, the fiber
will be weak. If left until the seed is ripe, the fiber will be strong
but will be coarser and lack luster.
Jute natural fiber is a bast fiber obtained from the inner skin or bast tissue of skin surrounding the stem of the plant.
Jute is also called the 'Golden Fiber' due to its golden and silky shine, as well as its importance.
natural fiber, unlike most textile fibers which consist mainly of
cellulose (plant fiber), is part cellulose and part lignin (wood fiber).
To find out how Jute is processed, the advantages and disadvantages, and its multitude of uses, please continue reading here.